Hey all. I'm starting to get very frustrated very fast with Linux for one simple reason: "Permission Denied."
The classic permissions lesson.
Ok, its simple.
Do an 'ls -l'
This will show you a lot.
here is a sample...
-rw-r--r-- 1 ken metavers 22330 Jul 12 14:02 slash1.jpg
drwxr-xr-x 4 ken metavers 4096 Mar 6 19:15 sandbox
As far as a file is concerned, there are 3 (4 if you count root) types of users it recognizes: the owner, a group, and the world.
The 1st column (startiung from the left) are your permissions.
a 'd' in the leftmost space denotes that it is a directory. a '-' means it is a regular file.
Now the next THREE letters are permissions for the owner (who is 'ken' in this case). Ken has read/write permissions for slash1.jpg (rw-) the dash in ('rw-') is a placeholder for EXECUTE permissions, which slash1.jpg does not have. The next three characters (r--) means that the group (metavers) has read permissions only, notice that there are two dashes in place of write and execute. The last three (r-- again) are for the WORLD. r-- in the third set of permissions say that ANYONE can read the file.
So, now that we have that out of the way. Depending on your distro, a GNU/Linux System probably defaults to a fairly secure set up (unlike MS, and you can see the problems they have due to rampant root permissions). So, since I am assuming you are fairly intimate with the hardware you have, you should know that IO devices interact with the user space through /dev (mostly). So, since alsamixer is the program that controls the mixer on your soundcard, you should probably play with the corresponding /dev file.
In my case, the dev file is /dev/sound/mixer
if i do an 'ls -la' on that...I get...
crw-rw---- 1 root audio 14, 0 Dec 31 1969 mixer
The c in this case means it is a character device. The owner of the file is root.
If you notice root has read and write permission to the mixer. You'll also notice that there is a group called audio that has read and write permissions. You can do a couple of things here, you can change the permissions to rw for the world, which means ANYONE can play with the mixer, or you can add yourself to the audio group. to add yourself to a group, you probably want to look for /etc/group and edit it.
Ok, thus endeth the lesson. You can extend this idea to all other devices that you are having problems with.
As far as directories and files...
You don't have to change this stuff all at once. WHen you encounter a permissions problem, just find it and fix it once and for all.