White Paper: How Lasers Function



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 I would like to point out a few flaws and or oversimplifications in your article on lasers. 

"...Neutrons and protons exert a positive electrical charge..."  While it is true that Protons provide electricaly positive charges, Neutrons, which "weigh" approximately the same as the Proton (P+e --> N+Ve) this formula being the generally accepted form of electron capture,  have an electric charge of 0 and are considered a spin 1/2 baryon.   So only the proton exerts a charge within the nucleus of an atom.   

 "...Light—any type of light—is created when electrons are energized by an external source, such as electricity. Once that is accomplished, the electrons move into a higher orbit around the atom, and the atom becomes unstable. This state is only temporary, however; the electrons soon return to their normal orbit, and this is when the good stuff happens. As the electrons return to a state of equilibrium, they release their excess energy in the form of particles called photons: light. ..."

Light, at least as far as we know so far, is not "created".  An exchange of energy states can be said to have happened, an electron on retruning to the ground state from an excited state emits a photon, would be a true statement but Light along with other forms of energy or matter are not created. This would violate Conservation of Mater and Energy.  This is a "law or rule" that we think, and all evidence so far supports this thinking, does not change.  Now notice something.  The photon was not "inside" the electron waiting to be emitted but yet it is Not created.  It is truly the result of a transfer of energy/momentum of one particle interacting with another particle.  

 Oh and electricity could never interact with an electron as electricity is nothing more than the flow of electrons through a medium, and since that is the case and all electrons must by definition carry an electricaly negative charge the two particles are excluded (Pauli's exclusion principle) from interaction.  The electron may only emit photons which can interact with other electrons!  The statement would be rather like saying electricity is energized by electricity.  A better choice of words there would have been to simply say an external energy source, and leave it at that.  Going further with that thought would require that the reader have a doctorate in physics to fully understand the implications. 

"Light—Any type of light—..." There are no discreet types of light that I (or any rational being ) am aware of.  There are differing frequencies of light but there are not discreet types of light.  All light consists of photons, indeed the photon is the fundamental particle of light.  Light may not consist of anything other than light in discreet "packets" that we call photons and each photon is known as 1 quanta of light.  The generally accepted definition of light is: electromagnetic radiation in the form of photons.  There is no other generally accepted definition than this.  It is fundamental to QCD and QED and to date we have not had any contradictions of this definition.  light=light everytime no exceptions to the rule so far.  Now light can have different frequencies.  780nm between peaks (near infrared) to 405nm between peaks (blue) are two frequencies of light, but they are still photons moving At c.   

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